Carniking™ for Production Animals

Carniking for production animals
  • Carniking™ Introduction

    As a company committed to total quality and customer satisfaction, Lonza is motivated to set new industry standards, not merely meet those currently existing. Lonza has acknowledged the market’s increasing demand for technologically sound products that fulfill the needs of progressive customers and/or industry professionals. This is why Lonza is proud to offer our Carniking™ line of products to the livestock industry, petfood manufacturers, and producers of food for racing animals.

  • What is Carniking™?

    Carniking™ is a high-quality source of L‑carnitine, manufactured by the Switzerland-based life sciences company Lonza.


    Carniking™ is an amino acid derivative and occurs naturally in the body. It is essential for energy metabolism - in particular the metabolism of fatty acids.

    Endogenous synthesis is often not sufficient to cover the animal's requirements and therefore a steady supply from food sources and/or supplementation is recommended.


     L‑CarnitineTartrate chemical structure
    Chemical structure of Carniking™

    Fatty Acid Oxidation
    Fatty acids are one of the primary energy sources for the body. ß-oxidation is the process by which fatty acids are broken down for the ultimate production of energy. Although fatty acids need to enter the mitochondria (the 'furnace' of the cell) for ß-oxidation, they are unable to penetrate the inner mitochondrial membrane. Carniking™ is essential to transport long chain fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane for subsequent fat breakdown and energy production.

    Free Co-Enzyme A (CoA) Buffer
    Carniking™ has been shown to buffer the bound CoA to free CoA ratio and removes toxic concentrations of acyl-CoA thereby helping to ensure that energy production can continue.

    Another important function of Carniking™ is the ability to shuttle short chain organic acids from inside the mitochondria to the cytosol.


    Due to its fundamental role in energy metabolism, Carniking™ is typically used to support all bodily functions that have a high energy demand.




     The transport of fatty acids by Carniking™ from the cytosol into the mitochondria for ß-oxidation and energy production.

    Clinical Deficiencies And Functional Shortage
    Clinical Carniking™ deficiencies may be grouped into primary and secondary disorders and functional shortages. Although all deficiency classifications are important, the functional shortages are the most prevalent.

    Primary Disorders
    Caused by hereditary defects in the biosynthesis, metabolism and transport of Carniking™. They are usually characterized by excessive muscle deposits of fat (lipidosis), impaired muscle tone and significantly reduced health in general.

    Secondary Disorders
    Caused by an insufficient supply of Carniking™ in the feed, reduced biosynthesis, abnormal losses or an exceptionally high endogenous need for Carniking™.

    Functional Shortage
    The functional Carniking™ shortage is also of significance. It limits performance without triggering perceptible clinical or pathological symptoms. It tends to occur when the actual provision of Carniking™ lags behind optimum level.

  • Products

    We operate exclusively with a dedicated Carniking™ manufacturing process and facility to minimize the risk of cross contamination and increase the level of traceability. Our state-of-the-art Carniking™ manufacturing plant is ISO 9001, ISO 14001, FSSC 22000 and FAMI-QS certified and operates under the guidance of HACCP and HAZOP principles.                  

    The new Carniking™ manufacturing process is the most environmentally conscious process available today.

    Carniking™ is produced by applying L-Carnitine to an inert carrier. It is free-flowing, non-hygroscopic, and readily miscible.

    Potency: 48.5 - 52% L-Carnitine.

    Carniking™ is recommended for the manufacture of dry feed formulations, premixes and basemixes.

    Carniking™ has a 3 year shelf life if stored properly in a cool, dry location and is heat stable through normal feed manufacturing processes including pelleting and extruding.

    Carnifeed™ contains L-carnitine in the form of fine crystals. It is highly hygroscopic. When exposed to the atmosphere, it absorbs humidity and tends to form lumps.

    Potency: min 97%.

    Carnifeed™ is suitable for use in liquid or paste-like formulations and for milk replacers.

  • Carniking™ Applications

    Lonza began the developmental phase of researching Carniking™ for animal production in the late 1980's. Research studies conducted at major universities, feed companies, and family farms have proven that Lonza's Carniking™ portfolio of products is innovative and effective at improving fat and energy metabolism and results in an improvement in health and well-being of the animal. Lonza continues to invest in sound science to further develop new and innovative applications for Carniking™ in production and companion animal formulations.

    Scientific research gives evidence that a dietary supplement may aid in the following situations:

    • Young/elderly individuals (reduced biosynthesis)
    • Increased performance requirement (growth, etc.)
    • Stress (cold, heat, pregnancy, lactation, change in feed, transport)
    • Conditions of sustained exertion (racing and sport animals)
    • Weight management programs
    • Diets low in L-carnitine
    • High-fat diet
    • Cardiac, liver, kidney and bowel disorders
    • Fertility problems (e.g. sperm motility, return to oestrus)
    • Surgical interventions and convalescence

    The Lonza Carniking™ portfolio of products are utilized worldwide in formulations and nutritional supplements for all phases and life stages of production and companion animals.

    Carniking™ is utilized in dry feed formulations and Carnifeed™ is utilized in wet formulations.

  • Regulatory Affairs

    Governmental authorities and nutritionists confirm that pure L-carnitine is a nature-identical, non-toxic, and easily tolerated substance. In almost all countries L-carnitine is listed as feed additive (Chapter: "vitamins, provitamins and chemically well defined substances having a similar effect"), or as nutritional supplement for animals.

    AAFCO feed ingredient definition from January, 2010:

    L-carnitine T60.98

    L-carnitine is a nutritional supplement with a minimum content of 97% L-carnitine and a maximum of 0.5% D-isomer.

    L-carnitine is for use in swine feeds at levels not to exceed 0.1% (1000 ppm) of complete feed, for use in chicken and turkey feeds at levels not to exceed 0.02% (200 ppm) of complete feed, for use in fish feed at levels not to exceed 0.25% (2500 ppm) of complete feed, for use in milk replacers for ruminant animals at levels not to exceed 0.075% (750 ppm) of milk replacer powder, for use in dog foods at levels not to exceed 0.075% (750 ppm) of complete feed on a dry matter basis, and for use in cat foods (intended for adult maintenance only) at levels not to exceed 0.10% (1000 ppm) of complete feed on a dry matter basis. L-carnitine is a fatty acid carrier that plays a role in fat oxidation in the body. (Proposed 1997, Amended 1999, 2002, 2004, 2009)

  • Patents

    Lonza has spent over 20 years researching and developing the benefits of Carniking™ for animal nutrition. Our expertise and innovative research has yielded numerous patents and patent applications. The following important applications are filed/owned or licensed by Lonza.


    • Method for preventing diet induced Carnitine deficiency in domesticated dogs and cats: US-4883672


    • Specific feed composition comprising L-Lysine and L-Carnitine. L-Carnitine supplemented finishing pig diet: US-5124357; EP-0484446


    • L-Carnitine supplemented diets for gestating and lactating swine: WO-98/24328; US-6242487; EP-B1-951218; CA 2274291.
    • L-Carnitine supplemented diet for starter pigs: US-5192804; WO-92/16218. EP-A-576596.
    • L-Carnitine supplemented finishing pig diet: US-5124357; EP-0484446


    • L-Carnitine supplemented diet to prevent sudden death syndrome in broiler breeder type poultry: US-609849; WO-00/56294.
    • L-Carnitine supplemented diet to prevent or alleviate ascites in broiler type poultry: US-A-09/273653; WO-00/56330.
    • Method of increasing the hatchability of eggs by feeding hens Carnitine: US-5362753; EP-0620981.


    •  L-Carnitine supplemented catfish diet: US-5030657.
    • Method of increasing the cold tolerance of fish: WO-99/41979.
    • Use of L-Carnitine as a feed additive for crustaceans: WO-96/25859.
    • Method of increasing the reproduction rate of fish: WO-97/20474


    • Method of inducing or enhancing training-induced bradycardia in mammals (esp. Horses): US-6342526; WO-02/21934